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ساینتولوژی نشانه های اختصاری
ساینتولوژی مجموعه‌ای از تعالیم است که ال ران هابارد نویسنده داستان‌های علمی تخیلی آن را توسعه بخشید.

محتویات
موافقان

ساینتولوژی در برخی کشورها به طور رسمی مذهب شمرده می‌شود. برخی از این کشورها بدین قرارند: آفریقای جنوبی، استرالیا، ایالات متحده آمریکا، هندوستان، مکزیک، نیوزیلند، پرتغال، سوئیس، تایوان، تانزانیا، ونزوئلا، زیمبابوه.

ساینتولوژی این عقیده را تقویت می‌نماید که انسان‌ها ارواحی فناناپذیرند که اتصال با اصل خود را گم کرده‌اند. در این راستا انسان می‌بایست با هوشیاری کامل تمامی تجربه‌های تلخ زندگی خود را مرور کرده و به یاد آورد تا از آن‌ها گذر کرده به سرچشمهٔ حیاتی خود نزدیک تر گردد. جان تراولتا و تام کروز از طرفداران این فرقه‌اند.

آراء مخالف

بزرگ‌ترین مخالفان این آئین در ایالات متحده را مسیحیان معتقد و اعضا سابق کلیسای ساینتولوژی تشکیل می‌دهند که از میان آنان تری مگو که خود به رده OT VII رسیده بود تشکیل می‌دهند. بسیاری معتقدند این آیین با استناد به حرفهای خود ران هابارد که اعتقاد داشت چنانچه نویسنده‌ای می‌خواهد بیش از یک سنت برای هر خط نوشته درآمد داشته باشد باید دینی بیاورد، تنها برای درآمد زایی ایجاد شده‌است. کلیسای ساینتولوژی به شدت در برابر نوشته‌های مخالف خود واکنش نشان می‌دهد و با استفاده از قانون کپی رایت و ادعای اینکه مخالفان اسرار این دین را فاش کرده‌اند با به دادگاه کشاندن بسیاری از مخالفان آنها را خاموش کرده‌است. همچنین تعدادی قتل هم به طرفداران این دین نسبت داده می‌شود.منبع

دیگر کشورها

در فرانسه ساینتولوژی فرقه به شمار می‌رود و مبلغان حق ندارند برای آن تبلیغ کنند و هر گونه فعالیت در این زمینه ممنوع بوده و شامل جریمه و مجازات زندان میشود. ساینتولوژی همچنین در آلمان و بلژیک فرقه محسوب میشود. در سوئیس به عنوان مذهب پذیرفته نشد و کارکرد آن را تجاری دانستند. در ایران هیچ مرکز رسمی ساینتولوژی وجود ندارد.

مراحل این دین به OT معروفند و به ترتیب OT I و OT II و... نامیده می‌شوند. در بخش موافقان و در کشور سوئیس بعنوان مذهب پذیرفته شده. در حالیکه در این بخش کارکرد آن را تجاری عنوان نموده‌اند. ممکن است در بسیاری دیگر از کشورها نیز وضعیت آن مشخص نباشد.

جستارهای وابسته

کلیسای ساینتولوژی
پروژه چنولوژی
پیوندهای بیرونی

وب‌گاه رسمی کلیسای ساینتولوژی
وب‌گاه توری مگو از اعضا سابق کلیسا و مربی جان تراولتا
وب‌گاه مخالفان ساینتولوژی
منابع

ویکی‌پدیای انگلیسی
رده‌ها: ساینتولوژی دین‌های نوظهورشبه‌ دانش فرهنگ غربی

قس عربی

السیَنتولوجیا، أو العِلمولوجیا، تشکل مجموعة من التعالیم الدینیة والمعتقدات، تستند إلى فلسفة علمانیة تأسست عام 1952 من قبل المؤلف رون هوبارد، من ثم أعاد نفس المؤلف صیاغتها باعتبارها "فلسفة دینیة تطبیقیة". بالنسبة لهوبارد فإن العلمولوجیا هی کما یمکن أن تفهم من الأصل اللاتینی لوجیا بمعنى خطاب أو دراسة وسیَنس أی علم بالتالی تکون "دراسة العلم أو دراسة المعرفة".
العلمولوجیا أشعلت جدلاً واسعاً. الانغلاق والسریة وأسالیب لی الذراع فی التعامل مع المنتقدین کانت سبباً للانتقادات والشک فی جمیع أنحاء العالم.
مبادئ العلمولوجیا وصفها العلماءو الأطباء بأنها علم کاذب. ولعل دلیلهم فی ذلک نابع من فلسفة العلوم التی تقول أن أی نظریة تستند إلى أی نوع من العلویة الماورائیة غیر قابلة للتکذیب وعلى هذا الأساس لیست علما (حسب بوبر). المشرعین، وبینهم حکومات دول عدة، وصفوا کنیسة العلمولوجیا على أنها مؤسسة تجاریة متهورة، ذاکرین تحرش تلک الکنیسة بمنتقدیها واستغلال أعضائها. کما تصنفها بعض الحکومات تحت المؤسسات أو التیارات المناهضة للدستور وتقوم بمراقبتها مخابراتیا ویعللون ذلک بکون حرکة الساینتولجی فی جوهرها حرکة لا دینیة مستندین إلى تاریخ الحرکة وکیفیة نشوئها, ویقولون أن الجانب الدینی فی الساینتولوجی قد أقحم فیها لکی تلقى تجاوبا من ذوی العقول البسیطة ولکی تظهر فی مظهر تیار حامل لقیم إنسانیة فی حین أن الحقیقة هی أن مؤسسی الحرکة وتاریخ نشأتها یدلون على عکس ذلک.
محتویات
فکرتها

تتلخص فکرتهم أو هدفهم فی مکننة الإنسان والعلاقات الإنسانیة على جمیع المستویات بدئا بالفرد ونهایة عند الدول ذلک لأن الخاصیات الإنسانیة متغیر غیر قابل للحساب أو التنبؤ به فی المعاملات یؤدی إلى أخطاء فادحة عند إتخاذ القرارات إلى حد إتخاذ قرارت غیر منطقیة (لکن أخلاقیة فی بعض الأحیان) فوجب إذن تخلیص الإنسان من هذه الخصائص الإنسانیة التی یرونها أنها موطن ضعفه والرقی به (حسب الساینتولوجی) إلى درجة إتقان عمل الماکنات. ویستدل أصحاب هذه الإتهامات على وجود العدید من القواعد والتمارین ضمن الحرکة هدفها محو الإرادة الشخصیة وتطویع الفرد فی خدمة المؤسسة (الساینتولوجیة) أو النظام عامة کضرب من ضروب الهندسة الاجتماعیة کواجب الطاعة العمیاء لمن فوقک فی هرم المؤسسة وعدم حق النقد وعدة تمارین تتعلق بمکننة الحیاة الیومیة کتمارین على المشی والضحک والصراخ إلخ هدفها التخلص من التلقائیة والمشاعر. ولعل الجدیر بالذکر عند هذه النقطة أن الفکر الساینتولوجی هو امتداد للتیار الذی یرى أن علم الاجتماع والنفس یخضع أو یجب أن یخضع لنفس مقاییس العلوم الهندسیة. وهنا تنشأ تعارضات مع بعض تشریعات الدول الدیمقراطیة التی ترى أن هذا التیار والفکرة أولا تسلب الفرد حریته وبذلک تتعارض مع دستور الدولة وثانیا تجعل إمکانیة قیام نظام دکتاتوری أکثر احتمالا لتلک الأسباب تعتبر العلمولوجیا طائفة دینیة سریة وحتى غیر قانونیة.
تتمثل هذه الفلسفة رسمیا عن طریق کنیسة السینتولوجیا، التی تصف نفسها بأنها منظمة غیر نفعیة تسعى لإصلاح وإعادة تأهیل الروح الإنسانیة، وهی تطرح نفسها کبدیل عن مدرسة التحلیل النفسی فهی تعتبر هذه المدرسة سلوک بربری متخلف. توصل هوبارد إلی أن الإنسان:
کائن حی خالد,
تتجاوز خبرته حدود حیاته الفردیة,
یتمتع بقدرات غیر محدودة حتی لو لم یدرکها فی حینها
وتؤکد العلمولوجیا علی عدم وجود علاقة بین الروح کمفهوم فلسفی وبین روح الإنسان الموجودة فی جسده, وتسبب وجوده الشعوری وبناء علیه فلا یعتبر المبشرون العلمولوجیا أنها مجرد إنجازات فلسفیة کبری فقط, لکنها ـ حسب أفکارهم المدونة ـ مبادیء قابلة للتطبیق, فهی تفسر وتشرح القوانین الأساسیة للحیاة, وتبین أسباب تصرف الإنسان بطریقة ما دون غیرها, وتعرض بوضوح معوقات البقاء وأفضل السبل لتذلیل هذه المعوقات, حتی یتحقق ذلک فعلی الإنسان أن یؤمن بأنه کائن مکون من:
جسم (body)
عقل (mind)
طاقة روحیة مسیطرة ومحرکة (thetan)
فالجسم أکبر قلیلا, کونه مجرد آلة, أما العقل فهو جهاز یحلل ویشکل رد الفعل ویحسب ویجمع الصور, وتبقی الروح المسیطرة التی هی الحیاة ذاتها والمسئولة عن تنشیط الجسم وعن استخدام العقل, ووفقا لأشکال العلاقة بین مکونات الإنسان الثلاثة وقیاس مناطق الضعف فی علاقاتها وفی الروح یمکن تحدید أسالیب حل مشاکل الإنسان المختلفة.
ابتکر هوبارد وسیلة أطلق علیها اسم الاستماع لتصبح هی محور ممارسة واستخدام العلمولوجیا, أما الشخص العلمولوجی المدرب علی استخدامها فیطلق علیه المستمع وقد اقتبس هوبارد الاسم من الکلمة اللاتینیة audire وتعنی یستمع, ویسمی الجهاز الذی یمکن المستمع من الاستماع المقیاس النفسی الکهربائی, وهو عبارة عن آلة شبیهة بالعداد المزود بمؤشر یتصل بها قطبان, وعندما یجلس الشخص أمام المستمع یمسک القطبین بیدیه, فتتدفق طاقة کهربائیة قوتها 1.5 فولت, وهی أقل من الطاقة اللازمة لتشغیل فلاش الکامیرا, لا یشعر بها الإنسان, ویوجه المستمع مجموعة من الأسئلة, ویتحرک مؤشر العداد وفقا لإجابات الشخص التی تفجر طاقة ما یلتقطها الجهاز من العقل, ویتم تسجیلها علی العداد, ویتم إعداد تقریر عن مشکلات الشخص قبل عرضها علی هیئة أعلی, وتجری الجلسة فی قاعة هادئة لا یسمح فیها بوجود أی شخص آخر غیر المستمع مع المستمع إلیه للحفاظ علی أسراره. وهو ما یذکرنا بفکرة الاعتراف وطقوسها فی المسیحیة.
الجدل بشأن الدیانة

کل دین جدید یثیر قدراً من الجدل، إلا أن الجدل الذی رافق دیانة العلمولوجیا فاق أی نظیر. ولذلک الجدل أسباب متعددة، منها:
مؤسس الدیانة، رون هوبارد، قام بتأسیسها اثر نقاش مع صدیق له على حافة حمام سباحة فی الخمسینات حول أقصر الطرق للحصول على ملیون دولار. هوبارد قال أنه یمکنه بناء ثروة شخصیة قدرها ملیون دولار عن طریق إنشاء دین جدید خاص به. النقاش تطور إلى رهان. ثم ما لبث هوبارد أن أنشأ الدین الجدید. هوبارد نفسه صرح بنفس الفکرة فی حدیث لمجلة ریدرز دایجست عام 1980.
الکنیسة تشتهر بأسلوب التهدید بالتقاضی حتى تخمد أی انتقادات.
الکنیسة تشجع أتباعها على قطع کل صلاتهم بأهلهم غیر المعتنقین للدیانة الجدیدة.
الکنیسة تورطت فی عدة قضایا فی الولایات المتحدة وأوربا لابتزاز أعضائها للحصول على أموالهم.
حالات وفاة غیر مبررة لبعض الأعضاء، مثل لیسا مکفیرسون.
أنشطة جنائیة لأعضاء الکنیسة للتربح الشخصی وللقیام بعملیات بالنیابة عن الکنیسة ومسئولیها.
أتباع الکنیسة اشتهروا بأسالیب ضغط مختلفة للتحایل على محرکات البحث مثل جوجل ویاهو لیتجاهلوا الکتابات المنتقدة للدیانة.
حکومات ألمانیا وبریطانیا وغیرهم ترفض الاعتراف بهم کدیانة.
من أشهر معتنقیها

الممثلان الأمریکیان توم کروز وجون ترافولتا.
شاهد المزید من الصور والملفات فی ویکیمیدیا کومنز حول: سینتولوجیا
مراجع

^ لفظ هجین مرکب من سِیِنتیا "علم" باللاتینیة و-لوجیا "علم" بالیونانیة. العلمولوجیا هجین کذلک وترجم جزئیا.
مصادر


Scientology Victims Testimonies Video testimonies of people who were victimized by Scientology organization
تصنیف: حرکات دینیة

قس ترکی آذری

Sayentologiya (ing. scientology - «bilginin (qəd. yun. λόγος) mənsı (lat. scio)») təlimi ingilis əsilli amerikalı Lafayette Ron Hubbard tərəfindən 1950-ci illərin əvvəllərində meydana çıxmışdır. Hubbard 10 mart 1911-ci ildə Amerika Birləşmiş Ştatlarında - Nebraska Ştatının Tilden şəhərində dünyaya gəlmişdir. O, gəncliyində Çinə və Hindistana səfər etmiş, buddist rahiblərdən ruhun mahiyyəti ilə bağlı bilgilər almış, onların bir çox ideyalarını mənimsəmişdir. Geniş fantaziyaya malik Hubbard yazıçılıqla da məşğul olur, mətbuatda məqalələrlə çıxış edirdi. Sonralar o, fəaliyyətini genişləndirərək, Sayentologiya təlimini yaratdı.
Yaranışı

Sayentologiya əvvəllər dini təlim deyil, psixoterapiyanın yeni bir sahəsi kimi təqdim edilirdi. Hubbardın oxucular arasında böyük şöhrət tapan "Dianetics: Ruh sağlamlığının müasir elmi" adlı əsəri zehni və fiziki xəstəliklərdən qurtulmağın üsullarını göstərən elmi əsər kimi qəbul olunurdu. Sonralar isə, bu ideologiya tərəfdarlarının çoxunun əks-reaksiyasına baxmayaraq, dini təlim kimi formalaşmışdır. Bəzi məlumatlara görə, Sayentologiyaya dini don geyindirilməsinin əsas məqsədi vergidən yayınmaq olmuşdur.
1954-cü ildə Sayentologiya din kimi ABŞ-da, Los Angeles şəhərində fəaliyyətə başladı. Sayentologiyanın "din" adlandırılması çox böyük mübahisələrə yol açdı. Çünki o, xristianlığın əsas təlimlərindən fərqli ideyalar irəli sürür. Eyni zamanda, o vaxtadək Sayentologiyanı elm kimi nəzərdən keçirən bir çox adamlar onun dini mahiyyət daşıması iddiasını qəbul etmirdilər.
Həm elmi mühit, həm də kilsə tərəfindən tənqid olunan Hubbard 1958-ci ildə İngiltərəyə köçdü. 1968-ci ildə isə o, bu ölkədən fəaliyyətlərinə görə deportasiya olundu. 1976-cı ildə ABŞ Sayentologiyanı rəsmi məzhəb kimi qəbul etdi və o, Sayentologiya Kilsəsi adı ilə tanınmağa başladı.
Sayentologiya Kilsəsi indiyə kimi fəaliyyət göstərir. Kilsə iyerarxik təşkilatlanmaya, geniş maliyyə imkanlarına malikdir və bir neçə istiqamətdə fəaliyyət göstərən qurumları var. Bunlar iqtisadiyyat, bank sistemi, təhsil və s. sahələri əhatə edir.
Təlimləri

Sayentologiyaya mənsub çoxlu kilsələr fəaliyyət göstərir. Hər bir kilsənin keşişi Sayentologiyanın əsas təlimlərini öyrənmək üçün "Müqəddəs Təpə" adlanan təhsil müəssisəsində hazırlıq keçir. Keşişlər insan üzərində "Auditing" (təftiş) adlanan metodla "Clear" (təmizləmə, aydınlatma) adlandırdıqları əməliyyat aparmağı, hipnoz etməyi öyrənir və digər zəruri vərdişlərə yiyələnirlər. Sayentologiyaya görə, dünya məhvə məhkumdur, ancaq Hubbardın göstərdiyi yolla xilas olmaq mümkündür. Hər bir insanda daxili qabiliyyətlər var, bunu üzə çıxarmaq üçün isə insanda məlumat bazası mövcuddur. Məlumat bazası düzgün informasiya ilə təmin edilməlidir. Bu isə sağlam düşüncədir. İnsan şüuru iki funksional hissəyə bölünür: - Həyati proseslərin həllinə görə məsuliyyət daşıyan "Analitik" ağıl; - İnsana əzab verən hadisələr, psixoloji problemlər təsirində olan "Reaktiv" ağıl. Sayentologiyaya görə, insan uğur əldə etmək üçün ona mane olan keçmişin düşüncələrindən yaxa qurtarmalıdır və bu, təlimə xas xüsusi üsullarla həyata keçirilir. Sayentoloqlar satanizmin, buddizmin və hinduizmin təlimlərindən yararlanırlar. Bazar günləri təşkilatın mərkəzində, yaxud şöbələrində yığıncaqlar təşkil olunur və ayinlər icra edilir. Bu ayinlər üç hissəyə ayrılır: - Birinci hissədə uzun müddət təcrübə keçmiş, "Senior Dianetics" adlandırılan keşiş Sayentologiyanın əsas prinsipləri haqqında vəz verir. Hubbardın əsərlərindən bölmələr oxunur və onun lentə alınmış moizələri dinlənilir. - İkinci hissə sual-cavab və müzakirələr üçün nəzərdə tutulur. İkinci və üçüncü hissələr arasında fasilə elan olunur. - Üçüncü hissədə isə, iştirakçılar iki-iki ayrılaraq bir-birinə ruhi müalicə adlandırdıqları "Auditing" tətbiq edirlər.
Yayılması və fəaliyyətləri

Sayentologiya dünyanın bir çox ölkələrində, o cümlədən ABŞ, Argentina, Yaponiya, İngiltərə, Fransa, Almaniya, Belçika, İrlandiya, Lüksemburq, Meksika, İsrail və Rusiyada geniş yayılmışdır. Bununla yanaşı, Afrika ölkələrində də özünə çoxlu tərəfdar tapmışdır. Sayentologiya qeyri-müsəlman ölkələrində daha aktiv fəaliyyət göstərir. Amma onun müsəlmanların üstünlük təşkil etdiyi ölkələrdə də təbliğ edilməsi ilə bağlı geniş iş aparılır.
Ümumiyyətlə, Sayentologiya dünya ölkələri tərəfindən çox təhlükəli təlim kimi qəbul olunur və ona qarşı mübarizə aparılır. göstərin
Sayentologiya Rusiya Federasiyası ərazisində də geniş yayılmışdır. Belə ki, 1994-cü ildə Sayentologiya dini təşkilat kimi Rusiyada qeydiyyatdan keçsə də, 1997-ci ildə yeni Qanunun qüvvəyə minməsi ilə yenidən qeydiyyata alınmaq zərurəti yaranmışdır. Bu zaman isə qeydiyyata alınmaqla bağlı problem yaranmış, iş İnsan Hüquqları üzrə Avropa Məhkəməsinə qədər gedib çıxmışdır.
Sayentologiya dini fəaliyyətdən daha çox təşəkkül tapdığı ölkələrin iqtisadi, siyasi həyatında aktivlik göstərir.


Commonsda Sayentologiya ilə əlaqədar müxtəlif fayllar var.
Kateqoriya: Vikipediya:Mənbəsiz məqalələrDinlər

ترکی استابولی

Scientology (okunuşu: Sayntoloci), ABD'li bilim kurgu yazarı L. Ron Hubbard tarafından geliştirilen bir inanç ve buna bağlı uygulamarın bulunduğu bir din akımı. Başlarda Hubbard tarafından kişisel gelişim için hazırlanan bir felsefe iken daha sonra bir dini akıma dönüşmüştür.
Scientology, Scientology Kilisesi'nin dinini tanıtmak ve yaymak için kullanmaya çalışmaktadır.
Konu başlıkları
İnanış

Bundan 175 milyon yıl önce hüküm süren galaktik bir konfederasyonun lideri Xenu isimli varlık anlaşmazlık yaşadığı milyarlarca varlığı dünyamıza göndererek Hawaii yakınlarında bir yanardağa attırmıştır. Günümüzde insanları yaşadığı acı ve sıkıntıların kaynağı halen yeryüzünde olan o varlıkların ruhlarıdır. Bu ruhlara thetan denmektedir. Scientology'e göre insanlar bu ruhların manevi baskısından kurtulunca gerçek mutluluğa kavuşacaklardır. Scientology üyeleri insan ruhunu arındırmak ve vücudun bir köşesinde barındırmak için çeşitli yöntemler geliştirdiklerini iddia ederler. Bu yöntemlere dianetics adını verirler. Hollywood yıldızlarından Tom Cruise, ve John Travolta bu inanç birliğinin içinde yer almaktadırlar.
Günümüz

Scientology, ABD başta olmak üzere bir çok ülkede ayrı bir din olarak kabul edilmiştir. Scientology 1990'lı yıllardan sonra daha da ünlenmeye başlamıştır. Scientology yetişkin çizgi komedi dizisi South Park'ın "Trapped in the Closet" adlı, 16 Kasım 2005 tarihli bölümüne konu olmuştur. Southpark'ın Scientology'i alaya alması üzerine Chef'i seslendiren Isaac Hayes, Scientology'e bağlı bulunması ve saygısızlık yapıldığını düşünmesi gerekçesiyle diziyle yollarını ayırmıştır.
Scientology 1950'li yıllardan sonra dünyayı saran UFO dinlerine (Aetherius Society, Raëlism vb) benzetilebilir. ABD'de yaygın ve güçlü bir yapılanması bulunmasına karşın Avrupa'da özellikle Almanya'da tehlike olarak görülen Scientology'e karşı sert tedbirler alınmaktadır.
Dış bağlantılar

Scientology Kilisesi web sitesi
Kaynakça

^ Melton 2000, sayfalar 28
^ Neusner 2003, sayfa 227
^ Finkelman, Paul (2006). isbn=978-0-415-94342-0 Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. CRC Press. ss. 287.
^ Lucy Morgan (29 Mart 1999). "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. "In the United States, Scientology gained status as a tax-exempt religion in 1993 when the Internal Revenue Service agreed to end a long legal battle over the group's right to the exemption."
^ Toomey, Shamus (26 Haziran 2005). "'TomKat' casts spotlight back on Scientology.", Chicago Sun-Times
^ Beit-Hallahmi (2003). Scientology: Religion or racket?. Marburg Journal of Religion. ss. 1–11.
^ Marney (20 Mayıs 2007). "Cult or cure?". Opinion (Edinburgh: Scotsman). Erişim tarihi: 2009-01-04.
Mallia (1 Mart 1998). "Powerful church targets fortunes, souls of recruits". Inside the Church of Scientology. Boston Herald.
Huus, Kari (5 Temmuz 2005). "Scientology courts the stars". MSNBC. Erişim tarihi: 2009-01-04.
Din ile ilgili bu madde bir taslaktır. Madde içeriğini genişleterek Vikipedi'ye katkıda bulunabilirsiniz.
Kategoriler: Din taslaklarıScientolojiYeni dini hareketler

قس انگلیسی

Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by L. Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), starting in 1952, as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in 1953 incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey.

Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counselling known as auditing, in which practitioners aim to consciously re-experience painful or traumatic events in their past in order to free themselves of their limiting effects. Study materials and auditing courses are made available to members in return for specified donations. Scientology is legally recognized as a tax-exempt religion in the United States, Italy, South Africa, Australia, Sweden, New Zealand, Portugal and Spain; and the Church of Scientology emphasizes this as proof that it is a bona fide religion. In other countries, notably Canada, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, Scientology does not have comparable religious status.

A large number of organizations overseeing the application of Scientology have been established, the most notable of these being the Church of Scientology. Scientology sponsors a variety of social-service programs. These include the Narconon anti-drug program, the Criminon prison rehabilitation program, the Study Tech education methodology, the Volunteer Ministers, the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, and a set of moral guidelines expressed in a booklet called The Way to Happiness.

The Church of Scientology is one of the most controversial new religious movements to have arisen in the 20th century. It has often been described as a cult that financially defrauds and abuses its members, charging exorbitant fees for its spiritual services. In response, Scientologists have argued that theirs is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned and persecuted. The Church of Scientology has consistently used litigation against its critics, and its aggressiveness in pursuing its foes has been condemned as harassment. Further controversy has focused on Scientology's belief that souls ("thetans") reincarnate and have lived on other planets before living on Earth, and that some of the related teachings are not revealed to practitioners until they have paid thousands of dollars to the Church of Scientology. Another controversial belief held by Scientologists is that the practice of psychiatry is destructive and abusive and must be abolished.

Contents
1 Etymology and earlier usage
2 History
2.1 Dianetics
2.2 The Church of Scientology
2.3 Recognition as a religion
3 Membership statistics
4 Beliefs and practices
4.1 Body and Spirit
4.2 Emotions and the mind
4.3 Survival and ethics
4.4 ARC and KRC triangles
4.5 Social and antisocial personalities
4.6 Auditing
4.7 The Bridge to Total Freedom
4.8 Space opera and confidential materials
4.9 Ceremonies
4.10 Influences
5 Organization
5.1 Practice and training organizations
5.2 Technology application organizations
5.3 Social reform organizations
5.4 Other entities
5.5 Free Zone and Independent Scientologists
6 Dispute of religion status
6.1 Scientology status by country
6.2 Scholarly views on Scientology's status as a religion
6.3 Scientology as a commercial venture
7 Controversies
7.1 Scientology and the Internet
7.2 Scientology and hypnosis
7.3 Auditing confidentiality
8 Celebrities
9 See also
10 References
11 Footnotes
12 External links
Etymology and earlier usage

The word Scientology is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge", "skill"), which comes from the verb scīre ("to know"), and the Greek λόγος lógos ("word" or "account ").

Scientology, as coined by L. Ron Hubbard, comes from the Latin scio, which means "knowing, in the fullest meaning of the word" and the Greek word logos, which means "study of". Scientology is further defined as "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, universes, and other life."

In 1901, Allen Upward coined Scientology "as a disparaging term, to indicate a blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine" according to the Internet Sacred Text Archive as quoted in the preface to Forgotten Books' recent edition of Upward's book, The New Word: On the meaning of the word Idealist. Continuing to quote, the publisher writes "I'm not aware of any evidence that Hubbard knew of this fairly obscure book."

In 1934, philosopher Anastasius Nordenholz published a book that used the term to mean "science of science". It is also uncertain whether Hubbard was aware of this prior usage of the word.

History

See also: Timeline of Scientology
Dianetics
Main article: Dianetics


L. Ron Hubbard in 1950
Scientology was developed by L. Ron Hubbard as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Dianetics uses a counseling technique known as auditing, developed by Hubbard to enable conscious recall of traumatic events in an individual's past. It was originally intended to be a new psychotherapy and was not expected to become the foundation for a new religion. Hubbard variously defined Dianetics as a spiritual healing technology and an organized science of thought. The stated intent of Dianetics is to free individuals of the influence of past traumas by systematic exposure and removal of the engrams these events have left behind, in a process called clearing.

Hubbard, an American writer of pulp fiction, especially science fiction, first published his ideas on the human mind in the Explorers Club Journal and the May 1950 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine.The publication of Dianetics in May 1950 is considered by Scientologists a seminal event of the century. Two of Hubbard's key supporters at the time were John W. Campbell Jr., the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and Dr. Joseph A. Winter. Winter, hoping to have Dianetics accepted in the medical community, submitted papers outlining the principles and methodology of Dianetic therapy to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1949, but these were rejected.

May 1950 saw the publication of Hubbard's Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. His book entered the New York Times best-seller list on June 18 and stayed there until December 24 of that year. Dianetics appealed to a broad range of people who used instructions from the book and applied the method to each other, becoming practitioners themselves. Hubbard found himself the leader of a growing Dianetics movement. He became a popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors.

Dianetics soon met with criticism. Morris Fishbein, the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association and well-known at the time as a debunker of quack medicine, dismissed Hubbard's book. An article in Newsweek stated that "the dianetics concept is unscientific and unworthy of discussion or review". In January 1951, the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners instituted proceedings against the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation for teaching medicine without a license, which eventually led to that foundation's bankruptcy.

Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occurred in past lives, or previous incarnations. In early 1951, reincarnation became a subject of intense debate within Dianetics. Campbell and Winter, who was still hopeful of winning support for Dianetics from the medical community, championed a resolution to ban the topic. But Hubbard decided to take the reports of past life events seriously and postulated the existence of the thetan, a concept similar to the soul. This was an important factor in the transition from secular Dianetics to the religion of Scientology.

Also in 1951, Hubbard introduced the electropsychometer (E-meter for short), a kind of galvanometer, as an auditing aid. Based on a design by Hubbard, the device is held by Scientologists to be a useful tool in detecting changes in a person's state of mind.

Publisher's weekly gave a plaque posthumously to L. Ron Hubbard commemorating the appearance of Dianetics on its bestseller list for one hundred consecutive weeks. One scholar has called Dianetics the bestselling non-Christian religious book of the century.

The Church of Scientology


the Founding Church of Scientology in Washington D.C.
Main article: Church of Scientology
In 1952, Hubbard built on the existing framework set forth in Dianetics, and published a new set of teachings as Scientology, a religious philosophy. In December 1953, Hubbard incorporated three churches – a "Church of American Science", a "Church of Scientology" and a "Church of Spiritual Engineering" – in Camden, New Jersey. On February 18, 1954, with Hubbard's blessing, some of his followers set up the first local Church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology of California, adopting the "aims, purposes, principles and creed of the Church of American Science, as founded by L. Ron Hubbard." The movement spread quickly through the United States and to other English-speaking countries such as Britain, Ireland, South Africa and Australia. The second local Church of Scientology to be set up, after the one in California, was in Auckland, New Zealand. In 1955, Hubbard established the Founding Church of Scientology in Washington, D.C. In 1957, the Church of Scientology of California was granted tax-exempt status by the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and so, for a time, were other local churches. In 1958 however, the IRS started a review of the appropriateness of this status. In 1959, Hubbard moved to England, remaining there until the mid-1960s.

The Church experienced further challenges. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began an investigation concerning the claims the Church of Scientology made in connection with its E-meters. On January 4, 1963, they raided offices of the Church of Scientology and seized hundreds of E-meters as illegal medical devices. The devices have since been required to carry a disclaimer saying that they are a purely religious artifact.

In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian states, starting with Victoria in 1965. The ban was based on the Anderson Report, which found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. On this point the report stated,

It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous ... the scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute ... leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names.

The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the "Church of the New Faith" as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become illegal in the relevant states. Several years of court proceedings aimed at overturning the ban followed.

In the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard presented rapidly changing teachings that were often self-contradictory. For the inner cadre of Scientologists in that period, involvement depended not so much on belief in a particular doctrine but on unquestioning faith in Hubbard. In 1966, Hubbard stepped down as executive director of Scientology to devote himself to research and writing. The following year, he formed the Sea Organization or Sea Org, which was to develop into an elite group within Scientology. The Sea Org was based on three ships, the Diana, the Athena, and the Apollo, which served as the flag ship. One month after the establishment of the Sea Org, Hubbard announced that he had made a breakthrough discovery, the result of which were the "OT III" materials purporting to provide a method for overcoming factors inhibiting spiritual progress. These materials were first disseminated on the ships, and then propagated by Sea Org members reassigned to staff Advanced Organizations on land.

In 1967, the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for charitable or religious purposes. The decision resulted in a process of litigation that would be settled in the Church's favour a quarter of a century later, the longest case of litigation in IRS history.

In 1979, as a result of FBI raids during Operation Snow White, eleven senior people in the church's Guardian's Office were convicted of obstructing justice, burglary of government offices, and theft of documents and government property. In 1981, Scientology took the German government to court for the first time.

On January 1, 1982, Scientology established the Religious Technology Center (RTC) to oversee and ensure the standard application of Scientology technology.

On November 11, 1982, the Free Zone was established by former top Scientologists in disagreement with RTC. The Free Zone Association was founded and registered under the laws of Germany, and believes that the Church of Scientology has departed from its original philosophy.

In 1983, in a unanimous decision, the High Court of Australia recognized Scientology as a religion in Australia, overturning restrictions that had limited activities of the church after the Anderson Report.

On January 24, 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch near San Luis Obispo, California, and David Miscavige became the head of the organization.

Starting in 1991, persons connected with Scientology filed fifty lawsuits against the Cult Awareness Network (CAN), a group that had been critical of Scientology. Although many of the suits were dismissed, one of the suits filed against the Cult Awareness Network resulted in $2 million in losses for the network. Consequently, the organization was forced to go bankrupt. In 1996, Steven L. Hayes, a Scientologist, purchased the bankrupt Cult Awareness Network's logo and appurtenances. A new Cult Awareness Network was set up with Scientology backing, which operates as an information and networking center for non-traditional religions, referring callers to academics and other experts.

In a 1993 U.S. lawsuit brought by the Church of Scientology against Steven Fishman, a former member of the Church, Fishman made a court declaration which included several dozen pages of formerly secret esoterica detailing aspects of Scientologist cosmogony. As a result of the litigation, this material, normally strictly safeguarded and used only in Scientology's more advanced "OT levels", found its way onto the Internet. This resulted in a battle between the Church of Scientology and its online critics over the right to disclose this material, or safeguard its confidentiality. The Church of Scientology was forced to issue a press release acknowledging the existence of this cosmogony, rather than allow its critics "to distort and misuse this information for their own purposes." Even so, the material, notably the story of Xenu, has since been widely disseminated and used to caricature Scientology, despite the Church's vigorous program of copyright litigation.

Recognition as a religion
For more details on this topic, see #Dispute of religion status.


A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California
In December 1993, the Church of Scientology experienced a major breakthrough in its ongoing legal battles when the IRS granted full tax exemption to all Scientology Churches, missions and organizations. Based on the IRS exemptions, the U.S. State Department formally criticized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scientologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports, as well as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from 1999 onwards.

In 1997, an open letter to then-German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, published as a newspaper advertisement in the International Herald Tribune, drew parallels between the "organized oppression" of Scientologists in Germany, and the treatment of Jews in 1930s' Nazi Germany. The letter was signed by Dustin Hoffman, Goldie Hawn and a number of other Hollywood celebrities and executives. Commenting on the matter, a spokesman for the U.S. Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur.

In 2000, the Italian Supreme Court ruled that Scientology is a religion for legal purposes. In recent years, religious recognition has also been obtained in other countries, including Sweden, Spain, Portugal, Slovenia, Croatia and Hungary, as well as Kyrgyzstan and the Republic of China (Taiwan). Other countries, notably Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Belgium and the United Kingdom, refuse to grant Scientology religious recognition.

Membership statistics

In 2005, the Church of Scientology stated its worldwide membership to be eight million, although that number included people who took only the introductory course and did not continue on. In 2007 a Church official claimed 3.5 million members in the United States, but a 2001 survey conducted by the City University of New York found only 55,000 people in the United States who claimed to be Scientologists. Worldwide, some observers believe a reasonable estimate of Scientology's core practicing membership ranges between 100,000 and 200,000, mostly in the U.S., Europe, South Africa and Australia. In 2008, the American Religious Identification Survey found that the number of American Scientologists had dropped to 25,000.

Scientologists tend to disparage general religious surveys on the grounds that many members maintaining cultural and social ties to other religious groups will, when asked their religion, answer with their traditional and more socially acceptable affiliation. On the other hand, religious scholar J. Gordon Melton has said that the church's estimates of its membership numbers are significantly exaggerated.

Beliefs and practices

Main article: Scientology beliefs and practices
According to Scientology, its beliefs and practices are based on rigorous research, and its doctrines are accorded a significance equivalent to that of scientific laws. "Scientology works 100 percent of the time when it is properly applied to a person who sincerely desires to improve his life", the Church of Scientology says. Conversion is held to be of lesser significance than the practical application of Scientologist methods. Adherents are encouraged to validate the value of the methods they apply through their personal experience. Hubbard himself put it this way: "For a Scientologist, the final test of any knowledge he has gained is, 'did the data and the use of it in life actually improve conditions or didn't it?'"

Body and Spirit
Scientology beliefs revolve around the thetan, the individualized expression of the cosmic source, or life force, named after the Greek letter theta (θ). The thetan is the true identity of a person – an intrinsically good, omniscient, non-material core capable of unlimited creativity.

In the primordial past, thetans brought the material universe into being largely for their own pleasure. The universe has no independent reality, but derives its apparent reality from the fact that most thetans agree it exists. Thetans fell from grace when they began to identify with their creation, rather than their original state of spiritual purity. Eventually they lost their memory of their true nature, along with the associated spiritual and creative powers. As a result, thetans came to think of themselves as nothing but embodied beings.

Thetans are reborn time and time again in new bodies through a process called "assumption" which is analogous to reincarnation. Like Hinduism, Scientology posits a causal relationship between the experiences of earlier incarnations and one's present life, and with each rebirth, the effects of the MEST universe (MEST here stands for matter, energy, space, and time) on the thetan become stronger.

Emotions and the mind
See also: Tone scale
Scientology presents two major divisions of the mind. The reactive mind is thought to absorb all pain and emotional trauma, while the analytical mind is a rational mechanism which is responsible for consciousness. The reactive mind stores mental images which are not readily available to the analytical (conscious) mind; these are referred to as engrams. Engrams are painful and debilitating; as they accumulate, people move further away from their true identity. To avoid this fate is Scientology's basic goal. Dianetic auditing is one way by which the Scientologist may progress toward the Clear state, winning gradual freedom from the reactive mind's engrams, and acquiring certainty of his or her reality as a thetan.

Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale. The tone scale is a tool used in counseling; Scientologists maintain that knowing a person's place on the scale makes it easier to predict his or her actions and assists in bettering her or his condition.

Survival and ethics


The Scientology symbol is composed of the letter S, which stands for Scientology, and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology.
Scientology emphasizes the importance of survival, which it subdivides into eight classifications that are referred to as dynamics. An individual's desire to survive is considered to be the first dynamic, while the second dynamic relates to procreation and family. The remaining dynamics encompass wider fields of action, involving groups, mankind, all life, the physical universe, the spirit, and the Supreme Being. The optimum solution to any problem is held to be the one that brings the greatest benefit to the greatest number of dynamics.

Scientology teaches that spiritual progress requires and enables the attainment of high ethical standards. In Scientology, rationality is stressed over morality. Actions are considered ethical if they promote survival across all eight dynamics, thus benefiting the greatest number of people or things possible while harming the fewest.

ARC and KRC triangles
See also: Scientology terminology
The ARC and KRC triangles are concept maps which show a relationship between three concepts to form another concept. These two triangles are present in the Scientology symbol. The lower triangle, the ARC triangle, is a summary representation of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for. It encompasses Affinity (affection, love or liking), Reality (consensual reality) and Communication (the exchange of ideas). Scientologists believe that improving one of the three aspects of the triangle "increases the level" of the other two, but Communication is held to be the most important. The upper triangle is the KRC triangle, the letters KRC positing a similar relationship between Knowledge, Responsibility and Control.

Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in personal communication, for example at the end of a letter. Social problems are ascribed to breakdowns in ARC – in other words, a lack of agreement on reality, a failure to communicate effectively, or a failure to develop affinity. These can take the form of overts – harmful acts against another, either intentionally or by omission – which are usually followed by withholds – efforts to conceal the wrongdoing, which further increase the level of tension in the relationship.

Social and antisocial personalities
While Scientology states that many social problems are the unintentional results of people's imperfections, it asserts that there are also truly malevolent individuals. Hubbard believed that approximately 80 percent of all people are what he called social personalities – people who welcome and contribute to the welfare of others. The remaining 20 percent of the population, Hubbard thought, were suppressive persons. According to Hubbard, only about 2.5 percent of this 20 percent are hopelessly antisocial personalities; these make up the small proportion of truly dangerous individuals in humanity: "the Adolf Hitlers and the Genghis Khans, the unrepentant murderers and the drug lords." Scientologists believe that any contact with suppressive or antisocial individuals has an adverse effect on one's spiritual condition, necessitating disconnection.

In Scientology, defectors who turn into critics of the movement are declared suppressive persons, and the Church of Scientology has a reputation for moving aggressively against such detractors. A Scientologist who is actively in communication with a suppressive person and as a result shows signs of antisocial behaviour is referred to as a Potential Trouble Source.

Auditing


A Scientologist introduces the E-meter to a potential student.
Main article: Auditing (Scientology)
Scientology asserts that people have hidden abilities which have not yet been fully realized. It is believed that increased spiritual awareness and physical benefits are accomplished through counseling sessions referred to as auditing. Through auditing, it is said that people can solve their problems and free themselves of engrams. This restores them to their natural condition as thetans and enables them to be at cause in their daily lives, responding rationally and creatively to life events rather than reacting to them under the direction of stored engrams. Accordingly, those who study Scientology materials and receive auditing sessions advance from a status of Preclear to Clear and Operating Thetan. Scientology's utopian aim is to "clear the planet", a world in which everyone has cleared themselves of their engrams.

Auditing is a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or auditor. It bears a superficial similarity to confession or pastoral counseling, but the auditor records and stores all information received and does not dispense forgiveness or advice the way a pastor or priest might do. Instead, the auditor's task is to help a person discover and understand engrams, and their limiting effects, for him- or herself. Most auditing requires an E-meter, a device that measures minute changes in electrical resistance through the body when a person holds electrodes (metal "cans"), and a small current is passed through them. Scientology asserts that watching for changes in the E-meter's display helps locate engrams. Once an area of concern has been identified, the auditor asks the individual specific questions about it, in order to help him or her eliminate the engram, and uses the E-meter to confirm that the engram's "charge" has been dissipated and the engram has in fact been cleared. As the individual progresses, the focus of auditing moves from simple engrams to engrams of increasing complexity. At the more advanced OT auditing levels, Scientologists perform solo auditing sessions, acting as their own auditors.

The Bridge to Total Freedom
Spiritual development within Scientology is accomplished by studying Scientology materials. Scientology materials (called Technology or Tech in Scientology jargon) are structured in sequential levels (or gradients), so that easier steps are taken first and greater complexities are handled at the appropriate time. This process is sometimes referred to as moving along the Bridge to Total Freedom, or simply the Bridge. It has two sides: training and processing. Training means education in the principles and practices of auditing. Processing is personal development through participation in auditing sessions.

The Church of Scientology believes in the principle of reciprocity, involving give-and-take in every human transaction. Accordingly, members are required to make donations for study courses and auditing as they move up the Bridge, the amounts increasing as higher levels are reached. Participation in higher-level courses on the Bridge may cost several thousand dollars, and Scientologists usually move up the Bridge at a rate governed by their income.

Space opera and confidential materials
See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine
The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation (OT levels), mystical teachings are imparted that may be harmful to unprepared readers. These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels. The Church states that the secrecy is warranted to keep its materials' use in context, and to protect its members from being exposed to materials they are not yet prepared for.



The Scientology cruise ship Freewinds.
These are the OT levels, the levels above Clear, whose contents are guarded within Scientology. The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the thetans. Hubbard described these early events collectively as space opera.

In the OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past. Among these advanced teachings is the story of Xenu (sometimes Xemu), introduced as the tyrant ruler of the "Galactic Confederacy." According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs in the volcanoes. The thetans then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living, and continue to do this today. Scientologists at advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating body thetans and neutralizing their ill effects.

The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fiction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu myths of creation and cosmic struggle. J. Gordon Melton suggests that these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended as descriptions of historical events, and that, like other religious mythology, they may have their truth in the realities of the body and mind which they symbolize. He adds that on whatever level Scientologists might have received this mythology, they seem to have found it useful in their spiritual quest.

Excerpts and descriptions of OT materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media. This occurred after the teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus becoming a matter of public record. There are eight publicly known OT levels, OT I to VIII. The highest level, OT VIII, is disclosed only at sea, on the Scientology cruise ship Freewinds. It has been rumored that additional OT levels, said to be based on material written by Hubbard long ago, will be released at some appropriate point in the future.

A large Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Base is visible from the air. Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard’s teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder’s works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe."

Ceremonies
In Scientology, ceremonies for events such as weddings, child naming, and funerals are observed. Friday services are held to commemorate the completion of a person's religious services during the prior week. Ordained Scientology ministers may perform such rites. However, these services and the clergy who perform them play only a minor role in Scientologists' religious lives.

Influences
The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant, author of the popular 1926 classic The Story of Philosophy; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant. Hubbard's view of a mechanically functioning mind in particular finds close parallels in Durant's work on Spinoza.

Sigmund Freud's psychology, popularized in the 1930s and 1940s, was a key contributor to the Dianetics therapy model, and was acknowledged unreservedly as such by Hubbard in his early works. Hubbard never forgot meeting Cmdr. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, a U.S. Navy officer who studied with Freud, when he was 12 years old, and when writing to the American Psychological Association in 1949, he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud".

Another major influence was Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics. Hubbard was friends with fellow science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt, who explored the implications of Korzybski's non-Aristotelian logic in works such as The World of Null-A, and Hubbard's view of the reactive mind has clear and acknowledged parallels with Korzybski's thought; in fact, Korzybski's "anthropometer" may have been what inspired Hubbard's invention of the E-meter.

Beyond that, Hubbard himself named a great many other influences in his own writing – in Scientology 8-8008, for example, these include philosophers from Anaxagoras and Aristotle to Herbert Spencer and Voltaire, physicists and mathematicians like Euclid and Isaac Newton, as well as founders of religions such as Buddha, Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed – but there is little evidence in Hubbard's writings that he studied these figures to any great depth.

As noted, there are elements of Eastern religions evident in Scientology, in particular the concepts of karma, as present in Hinduism and in Jainism, and dharma. In addition to the links to Hindu texts, Hubbard tried to connect Scientology with Taoism and Buddhism. Scientology has been said to share features with Gnosticism as well.

In the 1940s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons, a rocket scientist and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley, and there have been suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of Scientology. Religious scholars like Gerald Willms and J. Gordon Melton have pointed out that Crowley's teachings bear little if any resemblance to Scientology doctrine.

Organization

Main article: List of Scientology organizations


The incomplete Super Power Building of the FLAG Scientology complex in Clearwater, Florida.
There are a considerable number of Scientology organizations (or orgs) which generally support one of the following three aims: enabling Scientology practice and training, promoting the wider application of Scientology technology, or campaigning for social change. These organizations are supported by a three-tiered hierarchical structure comprising lay practitioners, staff and, at the top of the hierarchy, members of the so-called Sea Organization or Sea Org. The Sea Org, comprising over 5,000 members, has been compared to the monastic orders found in other religions; it is composed of the most dedicated adherents, who work for nominal compensation and symbolically express their religious commitment by signing a billion-year contract.

The internal structure of Scientology organizations is strongly bureaucratic, with detailed coordination of activities and collection of stats – or statistics, to measure organizational and individual performance. Organizational operating budgets are performance-related and subject to frequent reviews. Scientology has an internal justice system (the Ethics system) designed to deal with unethical or antisocial behavior. Ethics officers are present in every org; they are tasked with ensuring correct application of Scientology technology and deal with violations such as non-compliance with standard procedures or any other behavior adversely affecting an org's performance, ranging from errors and misdemeanors to crimes and suppressive acts, as defined by internal documents.

A controversial part of the Scientology justice system is the Rehabilitation Project Force (RPF). When a Sea Org member is accused of a violation, such as lying, sexual misconduct, dereliction of duty, or failure to comply with Church policy, a Committee of Evidence examines the case. If the charge is substantiated, the individual may accept expulsion from the Sea Org or participate in the RPF to become eligible to rejoin the Sea Org. The RPF involves a daily regimen of five hours of auditing or studying, eight hours of work, often physical labor, such as building renovation, and at least seven hours of sleep. Douglas E. Cowan and David G. Bromley state that scholars and observers have come to radically different conclusions about the RPF and whether it is "voluntary or coercive, therapeutic or punitive".

Practice and training organizations
Many Scientologists' first contact with Scientology is through local informal groups and field auditors practicing Dianetics counseling. In addition to these, Scientology operates hundreds of Churches and Missions around the world. This is where Scientologists receive introductory training, and it is at this local level that most Scientologists participate. Churches and Missions are licensed franchises; they offer services for a fee, and return a proportion of their income to the mother church. They are also required to adhere to the standards established by the Religious Technology Center (RTC), which supervises the application of Scientology tech, owns the trademarks and service marks of Scientology, and collaborates with the Commodore's Messenger Organization to administer and control the various corporate entities within Scientology. The RTC's Chairman is David Miscavige, who, while not the titular head of the Church of Scientology, is believed to be the most powerful person in the Scientology movement.

Once an individual has reached Clear and wishes to proceed further, he or she can take OT auditing and coursework with Advanced Organizations located in Los Angeles, Sydney, East Grinstead and Copenhagen. Beyond OT V, the Flag Service Organization in Clearwater, Florida, offers the auditing and course work for OT levels VI and VII, while OT VIII is offered only by the Flag Ship Service Organization aboard the Scientology ship Freewinds. Since 1981, all of these Churches and organizations have been united under the Church of Scientology International umbrella organization, with the Sea Org providing staff for all levels above the local Churches and Missions.

In 2012, the Ideal Center of Scientology for the Middle East opened in a refurbished historic building in Jaffa, Israel.

Technology application organizations


Church of Scientology of Tampa, Florida.
A number of Scientology organizations specialize in promoting the use of Scientology technology as a means to solve social problems.

Narconon is a drug education and rehabilitation program. The program is founded on Hubbard's belief that drugs and poisons stored in the body impede spiritual growth, and was originally conceived by William Benitez, a prison inmate who applied Hubbard's ideas to rid himself of his drug habit. Narconon is offered in the United States, Canada and a number of European countries; its Purification Program uses a regimen composed of sauna, physical exercise, vitamins and diet management, combined with auditing and study.
Criminon is a program designed to rehabilitate criminal offenders by teaching them study and communication methods and helping them reform their lives. The program originally grew out of the Narconon effort and today is available in over 200 prisons. It has experienced steady growth, based on a good success rate, with low recidivism.
Applied Scholastics promotes the use of Hubbard's educational methodology, known as study tech. Originally developed to help Scientologists study course materials, Hubbard's study tech is now used in some private and public schools as well. Applied Scholastics is active across Europe and North America as well as in Australia, Malaysia, China and South Africa. It supports literacy efforts in American cities and Third World countries, and its methodology is sometimes included in management training programs.
The Way to Happiness Foundation promotes a moral code written by Hubbard, to date translated into more than 40 languages.
The Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) acts as an umbrella organization for these efforts.
The World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is a not-for-profit organization which licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses. The most prominent training supplier to make use of Hubbard's technology is Sterling Management Systems.
The Church of Scientology has also instituted a Volunteer Ministers program to provide disaster relief; for example, Volunteer Ministers were active in the aftermath of 9/11, providing food and water and applying Scientology methods such as "Assists" to people in acute emotional distress.The Scientology Volunteer Ministers also used the "assist" to help Haiti quake victims. The Volunteer Ministers have also been sent to the site of relief efforts in Southeast Asia in the wake of the December 2004 tsunami and to London Underground stations that were attacked in the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Eight hundred were sent to New Orleans and the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.

Social reform organizations


Scientologists on an anti-psychiatry demonstration.
Further information: Scientology and psychiatry, CCHR, and Psychiatry: An Industry of Death
Some Scientology organizations are focused on bringing about social change. One of these is the Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR). Founded in 1969, it has a long history of opposing psychiatric practices such as lobotomy, electric shock treatment and the use of mood-altering drugs. The psychiatric establishment rejected Hubbard's theories in the early 1950s. Ever since, Scientology has argued that psychiatry suffers from the fundamental flaw of ignoring humanity's spiritual dimension, and that it fails to take into account Hubbard's insights about the nature of the mind. Scientology holds psychiatry responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying it has at various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psychiatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mass murderers, and created the Holocaust." In recent years, the CCHR has conducted high-profile campaigns against Ritalin, given to children to control hyperactivity, and Prozac, a commonly used antidepressant. Neither drug was taken off the market as a result of the campaign, but Ritalin sales decreased, and Prozac suffered bad press.

The main other organization in this field is the National Commission on Law Enforcement and Social Justice, devoted to combating what it describes as abusive practices by government and police agencies, especially Interpol.

Other entities
Other prominent Scientology-related organizations include:

International Association of Scientologists, the official Scientology membership organization;
Church of Spiritual Technology, a non-profit organization that owns the copyrights to Scientology books.
Free Zone and Independent Scientologists
Although Scientology is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. These groups, collectively known as the Free Zone or as Independent Scientologists, consist of both former members of the official Church of Scientology, as well as entirely new members. Capt. Bill Robertson, a former Sea Org member, was a primary instigator of the movement in the early 1980s. The Church labels these groups as squirrels in Scientology jargon, and often subjects them to considerable legal and social pressure. More recently, high-profile defectors Mark Rathbun and Mike Rinder have championed the cause of Independent Scientologists wishing to practice Scientology outside of the Church.

Dispute of religion status

Scientology status by country
Main article: Scientology status by country
The Church of Scientology has pursued an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a religion in the various countries in which it exists. Opinions around the world still differ on whether Scientology is to be recognized as a religion or not, and Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization. A number of governments now view the Church as a religious organization entitled to protections and tax relief, while others continue to view it as a pseudoreligion or cult. The differences between these classifications have become a major problem when discussing religions in general and Scientology specifically.

Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States. Recognition came in 1993, when the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) stated that "is operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes."

The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as the hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials. In 1991, Miscavige, the highest-ranking Scientology leader, arranged a meeting with Fred T. Goldberg Jr., the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service at the time. The meeting was an "opportunity for the church to offer to end its long dispute with the agency, including the dozens of suits brought against the IRS." The committee met several times with the Scientology legal team and "was persuaded that those involved in the Snow White crimes had been purged, that church money was devoted to tax-exempt purposes and that, with Mr. Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology." In August 1993, a settlement was reached; the church would receive its tax-exempt status and end its legal assault on the IRS and its personnel. The church was required only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS exempt organizations division; the division was told "not to consider any substantive matters" because those issues had been resolved by the committee. The secret agreement was announced on Oct 13, 1993, with the IRS refusing to disclose any of the terms or the reasoning behind its decision. Both the IRS and Scientology rejected any allegations of foul play or undue pressure having been brought to bear upon IRS officials, insisting that the decision had been based on the merits of the case. IRS officials "insisted that Scientology's tactics had not affected the decision" and that "ultimately the decision was made on a legal basis". Miscavige claims that the IRS’s examination of Scientology was the most exhaustive review of any non-profit organization in history.

Elsewhere, Scientology has been able to obtain religious recognition in such countries as Australia, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Sweden, Croatia, Hungary and Kyrgyzstan. In New Zealand, the Inland Revenue Department classified the Church of Scientology as a charitable organization and stated that its income would be tax exempt. It has gained judicial recognition in Italy, and Scientology officials have won the right to perform marriages in South Africa.

The Church has so far failed to win religious recognition in Canada. In the UK, the Charity Commission for England and Wales ruled in 1999 that Scientology was not a religion and refused to register the Church as a charity, although a year later, it was recognized as a not-for-profit body in a separate proceeding by the UK Revenue and Customs and exempted from UK value added tax.

Since 1997 Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the principles of the nation's constitution. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and is therefor observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. Germany will continue to monitor Scientology's activities in the country, despite continued objection from the Church of Scientology which cites such monitoring as abuse of freedom of religion. France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A. Kent, writing in 2001, noted that no such recognition had been obtained in Ireland, Luxembourg, Israel or Mexico either. The Belgian State Prosecution Service has recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with Scientology should be prosecuted. An administrative court is to decide if charges will be pressed. In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government, and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, for example in 2000 and 2003.

Scholarly views on Scientology's status as a religion
While acknowledging that a numberneeded of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist and professor Stephen A. Kent wrote: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious" in the original. Kent also holds that the US government sees Scientology not as a religion, but as a charitable organization due to its religious claims.

David G. Bromley of Virginia Commonwealth University characterizes Scientology as "a 'quasi-religious therapy' that resembles Freudian 'depth psychology' while also drawing upon Buddhism, Hinduism and Gnosticism."

Dr. Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life." Flinn further states that religion requires "beliefs in something transcendental or ultimate, practices (rites and codes of behavior) that re-inforce those beliefs and, a community that is sustained by both the beliefs and practices", all of which are present within Scientology.

Using the synonym of alternative religions, Barrett (1998:237) and Hunt (2003:195) place Scientology in the sociological grouping of personal development movements together with the Neurolinguistic Programming, Emin, and Insight. According to Religious Studies professor Mary Farrell Benarowski, Scientology describes itself as drawing on science, religion, psychology and philosophy but "had been claimed by none of them and repudiated, for the most part, by all."

Describing the variety of scholarly opinions in existence, David G. Bromley and Douglas E. Cowan stated in 2006 that "Overall, however, most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church in judicial and political proceedings on this basis." Bromley and Cowan noted in 2008 that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with new religion scholars" had often been problematic.

On the cultural significance of Scientology as a religion and providing a different scholarly perspective, Roland Robertson, a sociologist and theorist of globalization says, "New Religious Movements such as Scientology are contributing to globalization at the level or focal point of the self and the newly thematized extra societal aspect of self, humanity."

Religious scholar J. Gordon Melton asserts, "The Church of Scientology is very much a religion in the fullest sense of the word."

Scientology as a commercial venture


Scientology desk near the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin.
Main article: Scientology as a business
While NRM scholars have generally accepted the religious nature of Scientology, media reports have tended to express the opinion that "Scientology is a business, often given to criminal acts, and sometimes masquerading as a religion." During his lifetime, Hubbard was accused of using religion as a façade for Scientology to maintain tax-exempt status and avoid prosecution for false medical claims. The IRS cited a statement frequently attributed to Hubbard that the way to get rich was to found a religion. According to scholar J. Gordon Melton, the supposed statement is actually unsubstantiated, although several of Hubbard's science fiction colleagues do recall Hubbard raising the topic in conversation.

Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures. The scholar Marco Frenschkowski (University of Mainz) has stated that it was not easy for Hubbard "to come to terms with the spiritual side of his own movement. Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives. He had to defend himself about this to his friends." Frenschkowski allows that there naturally were practical considerations about "how to present Scientology to the outside world", but dismisses the notion that presentation as a religion was just an expedient pretense, pointing to many passages in Hubbard's works that document his struggle with this issue. Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation, Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard's lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who nevertheless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' (in a very popular sense), 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinate so many people that they start to form a separate movement. As in the case of similar movements, it was quite unclear to Hubbard in the beginning what Scientology would become."

The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor. The Church also suggests that the origin of the rumor was a quote by George Orwell which had been misattributed to Hubbard. Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after being its spokesman for twenty years, suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statement could be explained as a misattribution of Orwell, despite having encountered three of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbard making statements of that sort in person. It was Young who by a stroke of luck came up with the "Orwell quote": "but I have always thought there might be a lot of cash in starting a new religion, and we'll talk it over some time" It appears in a letter by George Orwell (signed Eric Blair) to a friend Jack Common, dated 16-February-38 (February 16, 1938), and was published in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, vol. 1. In 2006, Rolling Stone's Janet Reitman writes Hubbard said the same thing to science fiction writer Lloyd Eshbach, a fact quoted in Eshbach's autobiography.

Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, independent of the official Church of Scientology. Scientology has filed suit against a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.

The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to others by paying a commission to those who recruit new members. Scientology franchises, or missions, must pay the Church of Scientology roughly 10% of their gross income. On that basis, it is likened to a pyramid selling scheme. While introductory courses do not cost much, courses at the higher levels may cost several thousand dollars each.As a rule, the great majority of members proceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income. Most recently the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the church's financial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line with its religious purposes.

In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation regarding the group's activities within Germany. The results of this investigation indicated that at the time of publication, Scientology's main sources of revenue ("Haupteinnahmequellen der SO") were from course offerings and sales of their various publications. Course offerings ranged from (German Marks) DM 182.50 to about DM 30,000 – the equivalent today of approximately $119 to $19,560 USD. Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions. Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering, the Church has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing, or require members to make donations for specific religious services.

Controversies

Main article: Scientology controversies
See also: Scientology and the legal system


Official German information leaflets from the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution on (from left to right) Islamic extremism, Scientology, and organized crime.
Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, the Church of Scientology has, from its inception, been one of the most controversial, coming into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France and Germany). It has been one of the most litigious religious movements in history, filing countless lawsuits against governments, organizations and individuals.

Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members. Time magazine published an article in 1991 which described Scientology as "a hugely profitable global racket that survives by intimidating members and critics in a Mafia-like manner."

The controversies involving the Church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include:

Scientology's disconnection policy, in which members are encouraged to cut off all contact with friends or family members who are "antagonistic" to Scientology.
The death of a Scientologist Lisa McPherson while in the care of the Church. (Robert Minton sponsored the multi-million dollar law suit against Scientology for the death of McPherson. In May 2004, McPherson's estate and the Church of Scientology reached a confidential settlement.)
Criminal activities committed on behalf of the Church or directed by Church officials (Operation Snow White, Operation Freakout).
Conflicting statements about L. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hubbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit and of his service in the military.
Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics encouraged by its Fair Game policy.
Attempts to legally force search engines such as Google and Yahoo! to omit any webpages critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case, AdSense), or at least the first few search pages.
Allegations by former high-ranking Scientologists that David Miscavige beats and demoralizes staff and that physical violence by superiors towards staff working for them is a common occurrence in the church. Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis denied these claims and provided witnesses to rebut them.
In October 2009, a French court found the Church of Scientology guilty of organized fraud. Four officers of the organization were fined and given suspended prison sentences of up to 2 years. The Church of Scientology said it would appeal the judgment. Prosecutors had hoped to achieve a ban of Scientology in France, but due to a temporary change in French law, which "made it impossible to dissolve a legal entity on the grounds of fraud", no ban was pronounced. The sentence was confirmed by appeal court in February 2012.
In November 2009, Australian Senator Nick Xenophon used a speech in Federal Parliament to allege that the Church of Scientology is a criminal organization. Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds, of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization"
Due to these allegations, a considerable amount of investigation has been aimed at the Church, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies.

Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism.

Professor of sociology Stephen A. Kent says "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy." As stated in Scientology doctrine: "The whole agonized future of this planet, every man, woman and child on it, and your own destiny for the next endless trillions of years depend on what you do here and now with and in Scientology." Kent has described Scientology's ethics system as "a peculiar brand of morality that uniquely benefited Church of Scientology ... In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology."

Scientology and the Internet
See also: Scientology and the Internet and Project Chanology
In the 1990s, Scientology representatives began to take action against increased criticism of Scientology on the Internet. The organization says that the actions taken were to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online, fighting what it refers to as "copyright terrorists".

In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group. In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when sent to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates. Among the criticism raised, one suggestion is that Scientology's true motive is to suppress the free speech of its critics.



An Internet-based group which refers to itself as 'Anonymous' held protests outside Scientology centers in cities around the world in February 2008 as part of Project Chanology. Issues they protested ranged from alleged abuse of followers to the validity of its claims to qualify as a state-sponsored religion.
The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and lobbied for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act as well as the even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Some of the DMCA's provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.

Beginning in the middle of 1996 and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Some investigators said that some spam had been traced to Church members. Former Scientologist Tory Christman later asserted that the Office of Special Affairs had undertaken a concerted effort to destroy alt.religion.scientology through these means; the effort failed.

On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube. The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video. Subsequently, the group Anonymous voiced its criticism of Scientology and began attacking the Church. Calling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, participants of Anonymous coordinated Project Chanology, which consisted of a series of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and black faxes to Scientology centers. On January 21, 2008, Anonymous announced its intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology", and a press release declaring a "war" against both the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center. In the press release, the group stated that the attacks against the Church of Scientology would continue in order to protect the freedom of speech, and end what they saw as the financial exploitation of church members.

On January 28, 2008, an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008. According to a letter Anonymous e-mailed to the press, about 7,000 people protested in more than 90 cities worldwide. Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from V for Vendetta (who was influenced by Guy Fawkes) or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church of Scientology. Many further protests have followed since then in cities around the world.

The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May 2009 to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists. A "host of anti-Scientologist editors" were topic-banned as well. The committee concluded that both sides had "gamed policy" and resorted to "battlefield tactics", with articles on living persons being the "worst casualties".

Scientology and hypnosis
Main article: Scientology and hypnosis
Scientology literature states that L. Ron Hubbard demonstrated his professional expertise in hypnosis by "discovering" the Dianetic engram. Hubbard was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman (Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt (an early supporter of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills.

Auditing confidentiality


Scientology E-Meter
During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as preclear folders. The Church of Scientology has strict codes designed to protect the confidentiality of the information contained in these folders. However, people leaving Scientology know that the Church is in possession of very personal information about them, and that the Church has a history of attacking and psychologically abusing those who leave it and become critics. On December 16, 1969, a Guardian's Office order (G. O. 121669) by Mary Sue Hubbard authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security." Some former members have said that while they were still in the Church, they combed through information obtained in auditing sessions to see if it could be used for smear campaigns against critics.

Celebrities

See also: Scientology and celebrities and List of Scientologists
Hubbard envisaged that celebrities would have a key role to play in the dissemination of Scientology, and in 1955 launched Project Celebrity, creating a list of 63 famous people that he asked his followers to target for conversion to Scientology. Former silent-screen star Gloria Swanson and jazz pianist Dave Brubeck were among the earliest celebrities attracted to Hubbard's teachings.

Today, Scientology operates eight churches that are designated Celebrity Centers, the largest of these being the one in Hollywood. Celebrity Centers are open to the general public, but are primarily designed to minister to celebrity Scientologists. Entertainers such as John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Lisa Marie Presley, Nancy Cartwright, Jason Lee, Isaac Hayes, Edgar Winter, Tom Cruise, Chick Corea and Leah Remini have generated considerable publicity for Scientology.

See also

Scientology portal
Scientology and other religions
Scientology beliefs and practices
Scientology controversies
References

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^ "Scientologists 'heal' Haiti quake victims using touch". Retrieved 2012-01-11.
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^ http://www.deseretnews.com/article/600114811/Salt-Lake-volunteer-brought-healing-to-Indonesians.html
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^ Colette, Mark. "Former Scientology film crew member describes surveillance activities in Ingleside on the Bay". Caller-Times, Corpus Christi. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
^ Sweeney, John (September 26, 2010). "Mr Shouty and Cruise: the rematch". The Sunday Times. "Marty Rathbun, who like Rinder is now an independent scientologist ... Rinder, though a 'heretic' to the church, lives and breathes Independent scientology."
^ Tobin, Thomas C.; Childs, Joe (January 1, 2012). "In new year's message, Scientology insider blasts 'extreme' fundraising". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 2012-01-14. "Rathbun, now a leading figure in a movement for Scientologists to practice independently of the church ..."
^ a b Cowan & Bromley 2007, p. 17
^ Garcia, Wayne (March 31, 1994). "Scientology suit on PR firm heads for trial". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-01-04. "For 21⁄2 years, Hill & Knowlton worked closely with the controversial religion, coming up with ways to turn around Scientology's maligned image and teaching Scientologists how to handle reporters' questions."
^ Alan Aldridge Religion in the Contemporary World, p. 20, Polity, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7456-3405-0
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^ "Recognition was based upon voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations to the Internal Revenue Service." IRS press release Dec 31, 1997 Church of Scientology & IRS Confidentiality. Retrieved August 13, 2007
^ Dahl, David; Vick, Karl (October 24, 1993). "IRS examined Scientology dollars, not dogma". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
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^ Richardson 2009, p. 288
^ http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/Declaration/dmdec.txt
^ Richardson 2009, p. 286: "After doing a thorough analysis, the Court Australia stated unequivocally that Scientology met the criteria establishing itself as a religion, and therefore should be granted exempt status for tax purposes. The Court went on to state that a religion did not have to be theistic, and that a religion involved both belief and behavior ... This case is still the leading case in Australia defining religion, and is cited in other courts and countries as well."
^ 2007 U.S. State Department – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal: "In November the government officially recognized Scientology as a religion."
^ Spanish court rules Scientology can be listed as a religion: "A court in Spain has ruled in favour of listing the controversial Church of Scientology among the nation's official register of religions, according to a decision obtained by AFP Thursday. The administrative tribunal of Madrid's High Court ruled that a 2005 justice ministry decision to scrap the church from the register was 'against the law.'"
^ Cienciología entre las «entidades religiosas»: "Un tribunal administrativo de la Audiencia Nacional de Madrid, máxima instancia judicial española, aceptó un recurso interpuesto por ese movimiento fundado en 1954 por el autor de ciencia ficción Lafayette Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), para ser inscripto en el registro de los movimientos religiosos del país."
^ "Decision of 13 March 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden". CESNUR. March 13, 2000. Retrieved 2007-07-21.
^ Bogdan 2009, p. 338: "on March 13, 2000, the Church of Scientology was registered as a religious community by the National Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds following a new law, titled the Act on Religious Communities ..., which took on effect on January 1, 2000, with the separation of the Church of Sweden from the state. On June 10, 2000, the first legal Scientology wedding in Europe was celebrated in Stockholm."
^ "Scientology gets tax-exempt status". The New Zealand Herald. December 27, 2002. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
^ Richardson 2009, p. 291
^ Harry Wallop: Scientology tax victory could cost Revenue millions, Daily Telegraph, August 11, 2006
^ http://www.heute.de/ZDF/zdfportal/web/heute-Nachrichten/4672/23818856/5cf9d6/Eskalierende-Gewaltkultur-bei-Scientology.html
^ "Germany drops attempt to ban Scientology". msnbc.com. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
^ Kent 2001
^ a b "Church of Scientology Faces Criminal Charges in Belgium – International News". FOXNews.com. September 4, 2007. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
^ a b Planchar, Roland (September 4, 2007). "La Scientologie plus près de son procès". La Libre Belgique. Retrieved 2008-05-13. (French)
^ "US Dept of State International Religious Freedom Report 2004". State.gov. January 1, 2004. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (September 2003) (PDF). Scientology: Religion or racket?. Marburg Journal of Religion. Retrieved 2006-06-14.
^ Kent, Stephen (July 1999). Scientology – Is this a Religion?. Marburg Journal of Religion. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
^ Crittenden, Stephen. "Scientology, Hollywood and the path to Washington". The Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
^ William W. Zellner and Marc Petrowsky, Editors, Sects, Cults and Spiritual Communities: A Sociological Analysis, pp. 141–156, Praeger Paperbacks, 1998 ISBN 0-275-96335-7; chapter 8: "The Church of Scientology: A Quasi-Religion" by David G. Bromley and Mitchell L. Bracey, Jr.
^ Flinn, Frank K. (September 22, 1994). "Scientology: The Marks of Religion". Church of Scientology.
^ Bednarowski, Mary Farrell (1995). "The Church of Scientology: Lightning Rod for Cultural Boundary Conflicts". In Timothy Miller. America's Alternative Religions. SUNY Press. p. 388. ISBN 0-7914-2397-2.
^ Robertson, Roland (January 1, 1998). "The Cultural Significance of New Religious Movements and Globalization: A Theoretical Prolegomenon". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 37 (4).
^ "A Short Study of the Scientology Religion"
^ a b Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (September 2003). "Scientology: Religion or racket?". Marburg Journal of Religion (Philipps-Universität Marburg) 8 (1). Retrieved 2006-06-30.
^ a b Miller, Russell (1987). Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (First American ed.). New York: Henry Holt & Co. pp. 140–142. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0. http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/bfm/bfmconte.htm.
^ a b Melton 2000, pp. 55, 74
^ a b c d Frenschkowski, Marco (January 1, 2010). "Researching Scientology: Some Observations on Recent Literature, English and German". Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review (Academic Publishing) 1 (1): 38. ISSN 1946-0538. Retrieved 2011-01-13.
^ Platvoet & Molendijk The Pragmatics of Defining Religion, pp. 63–64, Brill, 1999 ISBN 978-90-04-11544-6
^ Jentzsch, Heber. "Church of Scientology FAQ: Did L. Ron Hubbard state that the way to make money was to start a religion?". Retrieved 2010-06-09.
^ a b c d Leiby, Richard (December 25, 1994). "Scientology Fiction: The Church's War Against Its Critics – and Truth". The Washington Post: p. C1. Retrieved 2006-06-21.
^ The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell (4 volumes), vol. 1, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968 ASIN: B000GLJ10S
^ Janet Reitman Inside Scientology, Rolling Stone, February 23, 2006
^ Plotkin-Wells & Wimmer E-Commerce Law & Business, Section 8.01, Aspen Publishers Online, 2003 ISBN 978-0-7355-4148-1
^ Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W. (June 24, 1990). "The Man In Control". Los Angeles Times: p. A41:4. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
^ West, Louis Jolyon (July 1990). "Psychiatry and Scientology". Retrieved 2007-05-16.
^ Melton 2000, p. 59
^ Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. ISBN 1-56085-139-2
^ Zur Frage der Beobachtung der Scientology-Organisation durch die Verfassungsschutzbehördenlink (in German) (PDF format)
^ Melton 2000, p. 60
^ "Publications listing on the website of the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution". Lfv.bayern.de. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
^ US State department Report 2006: "Several states published pamphlets about Scientology (and other religious groups) that detailed the Church's ideology and practices. States defended the practice by noting their responsibility to respond to citizens' requests for information about Scientology as well as other subjects. While many of the pamphlets were factual and relatively unbiased, some warned of alleged dangers posed by Scientology to the political order, to the free market economic system, and to the mental and financial well being of individuals. Beyond the Government's actions, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church have been public opponents of Scientology. Evangelical 'Commissioners for Religious and Ideological Issues' have been particularly active in this regard."
^ Morgan, Lucy (March 29, 1999). "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2007-09-07. "Canada's highest court in 1997 upheld the criminal conviction of the Church of Scientology of Toronto and one of its officers for a breach of trust stemming from covert operations in Canadian government offices during the 1970s and 1980s."
^ Souchard, Pierre-Antoine (February 2, 2012). "Scientology Fraud Conviction Upheld". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-02-03. "A French appeals court on Thursday upheld the Church of Scientology's 2009 fraud conviction on charges it pressured members into paying large sums for questionable remedies."
^ a b c Goodin, Dan (June 3, 1999). "Scientology subpoenas Worldnet". CNET News.com. Retrieved 2006-05-04.
^ "Marburg Journal of Religion: Framing Effects in the Coverage of Scientology versus Germany: Some Thoughts on the Role of Press and Scholars". Web.uni-marburg.de. May 22, 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
^ Richardson 2009, p. 283
^ Farley, Robert (June 24, 2006). "The unperson". St. Petersburg Times. pp. 1A,14A. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
^ Farley, Robert (May 29, 2004). "Scientologists settle death suit". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
^ Matt Loney; Evan Hansen (March 21, 2002). "Google pulls anti-Scientology links". CNet. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
^ a b Joe Childs, Thomas C. Tobin (June 23, 2009). "The Truth Run Down". St Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
^ Joe Childs, Thomas C. Tobin (June 23, 2009). "Scientology: Ecclesiastical justice". St Petersburg Times. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
^ "Scientology convicted for fraud in France, escapes ban , Reuters, October 27, 2009
^ French court upholds Scientology fraud conviction, AFP, February 2, 2012
^ Rudd's concerns about Scientology (quoted from embedded video, "Xenophon attacks Scientology – Independent Senator Nick Xenophon attacks Scientology as a 'criminal organisation'").. The Age. November 18, 2009
^ Gianni, Luke (February 22, 2007). "Scientology does detox – David E. Root, M.D". local stories 15 minutes (Sacramento News & Review). Retrieved 2007-05-06.
^ Seifman, David (April 21, 2007). "Local Pols Cruised in Free to Tom Gala". New York Post. Retrieved 2007-11-27.link
^ "Monserrate Defends Detox Program". The Politicker. New York Observer. April 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-27.
^ Etter, Lauren (January 19, 2007). "Program for prisoners draws fire over Scientology". Wall Street Journal (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette). Retrieved 2007-11-27.
^ Reitman, Janet (February 8, 2011). "Inside Scientology". Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
^ Hubbard, L.R. (1965): Keeping Scientology working (Series 1), page 7. The Hubbard Communication Office Policy Letter, titled Keeping Scientology Working Series 1, was included in the attached documents submitted to the IRS in 1993. Available from Xenu.net:
^ Stephen A. Kent (September 2003). "Scientology and the European Human Rights Debate: A Reply to Leisa Goodman, J. Gordon Melton, and the European Rehabilitation Project Force Study". Marburg Journal of Religion 8 (1). Retrieved 2006-05-21.; Kent cites Hubbard, L. Ron (1976a). Modern Management Technology Defined. Copenhagen, New Era Publications.
^ Grossman, Wendy (October 1997). "Copyright Terrorists". Net.Wars. New York: New York University Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-8147-3103-1. Retrieved 2006-06-11.
^ Wendy Grossman Net.wars, p. 77, NYU Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
^ Steven Vedro Digital Dharma, p. 190, Quest Books, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8356-0859-6
^ Mike Godwin Cyber Rights, p. 219, Massachusett Institute of Technology Press, 2003 ISBN 978-0-262-57168-5
^ Catharine Cookson Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom, p. 432, Taylor & Francis, 2003 ISBN 978-0-415-94181-5
^ Wendy Grossman Net.wars, p. 90, New York University Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
^ takes part in Scientology protests, Los Angeles Times, February 11, 2008.
^ Christopher Lueg From Usenet to CoWebs, p. 37, Springer, 2003 ISBN 978-1-85233-532-8
^ Wendy Grossman Net.wars, pp. 74–76, NYU Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
^ Nordhausen, Frank (in German). Scientology: Wie der Sektenkonzern die Welt erobern will. Links Christoph Verlag. p. 518. ISBN 978-3-86153-470-9.
^ John Cook (March 17, 2008). "Scientology – Cult Friction". Radar Online (Radar Magazine). Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
^ Warne, Dan (January 24, 2008). "Anonymous threatens to "dismantle" Church of Scientology via internet". APC Magazine (National Nine News). Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ KNBC Staff (January 24, 2008). "Hacker Group Declares War On Scientology: Group Upset Over Church's Handling Of Tom Cruise Video". KNBC. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ Vamosi, Robert (January 24, 2008). "Anonymous hackers take on the Church of Scientology". CNET News (CNET Networks, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ "Anonymous Attacks!". Retrieved 2009-01-30.
^ George-Cosh, David (January 25, 2008). "Online group declares war on Scientology". National Post (Canwest Publishing Inc.). Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ Singel, Ryan (January 23, 2008). "War Breaks Out Between Hackers and Scientology – There Can Be Only One". Wired (CondéNet, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ Feran, Tom (January 24, 2008). "Where to find the Tom Cruise Scientology videos online, if they're still posted". The Plain Dealer (Newhouse Newspapers). Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ a b Chan Enterprises (January 21, 2008). "Internet Group Declares "War on Scientology": Anonymous are fighting the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center" (PDF). Press Release (PRLog.Org). Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ Matthew A. Schroettnig, Stefanie Herrington, Lauren E. Trent (February 6, 2008). "Anonymous Versus Scientology: Cyber Criminals or Vigilante Justice?". Retrieved 2008-01-25.link
^ Dodd, Gareth (Editor); Agencies (January 25, 2008). "Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
^ Brandon, Mikhail (January 28, 2008). "Scientology in the Crosshairs". The Emory Wheel (Emory University). Retrieved 2008-01-31.
^ Feran, Tom (January 31, 2008). "The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers – New on the Net". The Plain Dealer (Newhouse Newspapers). Retrieved 2008-02-04.
^ Vamosi, Robert (January 28, 2008). "Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology". CNET News (CNET Networks, Inc.). Retrieved 2008-01-28.
^ Carlos Moncada (February 12, 2008). "Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another". TBO.com. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
^ Harrison, James (The State News) (February 12, 2008). "Scientology protestors take action around world". Retrieved 2008-02-14.
^ Forrester, John (February 11, 2008). "Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-02-15.
^ Andrew Ramadge (March 17, 2008). "Second round of Anonymous v Scientology". News.com.au (News Limited). Retrieved 2008-03-17.
^ a b c Shea, Danny (May 29, 2009). "Wikipedia Bans Scientology From Site". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
^ a b Metz, Cade (May 29, 2009). "Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology". The Register. Retrieved 2009-05-29.
^ a b Melton 2000, p. 29
^ a b Donaghy, James (June 9, 2007). "My name is L Ron Hubbard". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-01-14.
^ Breckenridge, Memorandum of Intended Decision in Church of Scientology of California vs. Gerald Armstrong, Superior Court, Los Angeles County, case no. C420153. quoted in Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. Carol Publishing Group. p. 322. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X.
^ Koff, Stephen (December 22, 1988). "Scientology church faces new claims of harassment". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
^ Steven Girardi (May 9, 1982). "Witnesses Tell of Break-ins, Conspiracy". Clearwater Sun: p. 1A.
^ a b c Shaw, William (February 14, 2008). "What do Tom Cruise and John Travolta know about Scientology that we don't?". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2009-06-25.
^ Cusack 2009, pp. 394–395
^ a b Neusner 2003, p. 233
Footnotes

Barrett, David V. (1998). Sects, ‘Cults’ & Alternative Religions: A World Survey and Sourcebook (Paperback) New Ed. Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 978-0-7137-2756-2
Behar, Richard (1991). Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Time Magazine.
Bogdan, Henrik (2009). The Church of Scientology in Sweden In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 335–344. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Bromley, David G. (2009). Making Sense of Scientology In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 83–101. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Cowan, Douglas E.; Bromley, David G. (2006). The Church of Scientology In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (eds.) (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 5. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 169–196. ISBN 0-275-98712-4
Cowan, Douglas E.; Bromley, David G. (2007). Cults and New Religions: A Brief History. Malden, MA / Oxford, UK / Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-6127-5
Cusack, Carole M. (2009). Celebrity, the Popular Media, and Scientology: Making Familiar the Unfamiliar In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 389–409. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Cusack, Carole M.; Digance, Justine (2009). Pastoral Care and September 11: Scientology's Nontraditional Religious Contribution In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 435–437. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Flowers, Ronald B. (1984). Religion in Strange Times: The 1960s and 1970s. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-86554-127-2
Frenschkowski, Marco (1999). "L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature"
Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (eds.) (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-275-98712-4
Garrison, Omar V. (1974). The Hidden Story of Scientology. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-0440-4
Hunt, Stephen J. (2003). Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-3410-8
Kent, Stephen A. (1996). "Scientology's Relationship With Eastern Religious Traditions". Journal of Contemporary Religion 11 (1): 21. doi:10.1080/13537909608580753. Retrieved 2009-01-13
Kent, Stephen A. (2001). "The French and German versus American Debate over 'New Religions', Scientology, and Human Rights". Marburg Journal of Religion 6 (1). Retrieved 2009-03-28
Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Lewis, James R.; Hammer, Olav (2007). The Invention of Sacred Tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86479-8
Melton, J. Gordon (2000). The Church of Scientology. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. ISBN 1-56085-139-2
Neusner, Jacob (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22475-X
Palmer, Susan J. (2009). The Church of Scientology in France: Legal and Activist Counterattacks in the "War on Sectes" In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 295–322. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Richardson, James T. (2009). Scientology in Court: A Look at Some Major Cases from Various Nations In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 283–294. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Urban, Hugh B. (2011). The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion. Princeton Press. ISBN 0-691-14608-X
Willms, Gerald (2005). Scientology: Kulturbeobachtungen jenseits der Devianz. Bielefeld, Germany: transcript Verlag. ISBN 3-89942-330-5 (German)
Willms, Gerald (2009). Scientology: "Modern Religion" or "Religion of Modernity"? In Lewis, James R. (2009). Scientology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 245–265. ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3
Zellner, William W.; Petrowsky, Marc (1998). Sects, Cults, and Spiritual Communities: a Sociological Analysis. Westport CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-96335-7
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